Adverbs: Also, As Well, Too, So, Either, Neither

In English, there are words that link positive or negative phrases or ideas with the meaning ‘this is also true‘. They are: ‘also‘, ‘as well‘, ‘too‘, ‘so‘, ‘either‘ and ‘neither‘. Although, these words have the same meaning, they are used in different positions in a sentence and link either positive or negative statements.

Also, as well, too

These three words mean ‘in addition’. We use them in positive sentences:

  • I like basketball and I also like football.
  • I like basketball and I like football too.
  • I like basketball and I like football as well.

The main difference is their position in a sentence.

Also

‘Also’ is commonly used in writing, but is less common in speaking. It occupies different positions in a sentence.

Also’ is usually used:

— before the main verb (often between an auxiliary and a main verb)

  • Jill walks to school, and Sara also walks to school.
  • I love chocolate. I also love pizza.
  • I can also speak French.
  • I have also been there.

— after the verb ‘to be

  • I am also Canadian.
  • I was also there.

We can use ‘also’ in front position to emphasize what follows or to add a new point or topic:

  • It’s very humid. Also, you can easily get sunburnt.

Too

Too’ has the same meaning as ‘also‘ adding an agreeing thought. It’s usually used at the end of the sentence:

  • I love chocolate. I love pizza too.
  • Frank can come with us. Nancy can come with us too.

‘Too’ can occur immediately after the subject, if it refers directly to the subject:

  • We, too, have been very pleased to be there.

‘Too’ is especially common in responses to fixed expressions (such as wishes), and in responses consisting of a single object pronoun:

  • Enjoy your time! – Yeah, thanks! Enjoy your evening too.
  • I hate mushrooms. – Yeah, me too.

As well

‘As well’ is very similar to ‘too‘ in terms of meaning and position in a sentence. It is used much more common in speaking than in writing, and is more common in speaking than ‘also’.

‘As well’ is used at the end of the sentence:

  • I’ll have steak please. And I’ll have vegetables as well.
  • My mother can’t drive a car. – My mother can’t drive as well.

Too’ and ‘as well’ are common in spoken and informal British English. (‘As well’ sounds formal or old-fashioned in American English.)

Here’s a picture to summarize this information:

also, as well, too
via https://vk.com/@project_rgups-also-too-well-as-either-neither-so-ispolzovanie

So

We can also use ‘so’ to mean ‘in addition’ in positive sentences:

  • I like basketball and so does my brother.

(This means the same as ‘I like basketball and my brother likes basketball too’.)

Note: The structure here is [so + auxiliary verb + subject].
NOT: I like basketball and so likes my brother.
We use ‘so do I‘ to say that a positive sentence is also true for me:

– I hate mushrooms.
– So do I (=I also hate mushrooms).

In spoken English, we can say:

I can swim.

  • I can swim too.
  • I can too.
  • Me too.
  • So can I.

Not either, neither & neither… nor

To connect negative ideas adding an agreeing thought, we use the words ‘either‘ and ‘neither‘.

Either

Either‘ has the same meaning as ‘too‘ but it’s used in negative sentences — ‘not… either’ — at the end of a sentence:

  • My sister doesn’t like basketball and she doesn’t like football either.
  • (NOT: She doesn’t like basketball and she doesn’t like basketball too.)
  • She can’t dance and she can’t sing either.
  • I didn’t like the movie either.

Neither

The word ‘neither‘ is used to express a negative thought but with a positive verb:

Compare ‘either‘ and ‘neither‘:

  • I haven’t seen Michael today.
  • I haven’t (seen him) either. / Neither have I. 

As with the previous example, we can express the same idea with ‘neither’. The word order is inverted after ‘neither’:

  • She doesn’t like basketball and neither does she like football.
  • She can’t dance and neither can she sing.

— We can also express the same idea with ‘neither… nor’:

  • She likes neither basketball nor football.
  • She can neither dance nor sing.

— We can also use ‘neither’ like this:

  • My sister doesn’t like basketball and neither does my mother.

(This means the same as ‘My sister doesn’t like basketball and my mother doesn’t like basketball either’. NOT: I like basketball and so likes my brother.)

Note: The structure here is [neither + auxiliary verb + subject].

NOT: She doesn’t like basketball and neither likes my mother.

In spoken English, we can say:

I can’t play the guitar.

  • I can’t play the guitar either.
  • I can’t either.
  • Me either.  (US English)
  • Me neither.  (UK English)
  • Neither can I.
Be careful not to use two ‘negative words’ together:

— She can’t sing and she can’t dance either.
(NOT: She can’t sing and she can’t dance neither.)
– I can’t play the guitar.
– I can’t either. (NOT: 
I can’t neither.)
– Neither can I. (NOT: 
Neither can’t I.)

Here’s a good video from Papa English explaining how these words are used:

See also:

Correlative Conjunctions

Position of Adverbs in a Sentence

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  1. I can understand the grammar correctly, but It is very difficult for me understand the speech

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